Turkish Grammar

If you're trying to learn the most essential topics about Turkish you will find some useful resources including a course about adjectives, adverbs, articles, gender (feminine, masculine...), negation, nouns, numbers, phrases, plural, prepositions, pronouns, questions, verbs, vocabulary, excercises... to help you with your Turkish grammar Enjoy our courses!


Turkish Lessons

Learning Turkish can help you communicate with other people who speak Turkish. The following courses will provide you with some help based on the lessons you choose. Here is a list of what we offer:

1-    Plural Lesson

Beforehand we must bear in mind that in the Turkish language definite and indefinite articles and gender do not exist. This being the case, adjectives, as in English, do not change according to gender. Nor do they become plural if the noun is plural, just as in English.

While in English, the plural is formed by adding (s) to the singular. In Turkish, to form the plural of nouns we add (ler or lar) to all words whether they end in a vowel or consonant. Here are some examples:

Arkadaş (a friend) becomes:Arkadaşlar (friends)

Kutu (box) becomes kutular (boxes)

Bu benim kırmızı arabam (this is my red car) becomes: Bunlar benim kırmızı arabalarım (these are my red cars)

2-    Adverbs Lesson

While in English adverbs are usually formed by adding (-ly) to adjectives. In Turkish many adverbs are actually   adjectives but relating to the verb instead the noun.. Examples:

Yavaş adam (A slow man). Adam yavaş konuştu.  The man spoke slowly.

Mükemmel atlet (A perfect athlete) Atlet mükemmel koştu. ( The athlete ran perfectly)

Some words are adverbs by nature. For example:

Şimdi (now),  yakında (soon) are  Turkish adverbs. Gerçek (real) as an adverb is used as gerçekten ( really) when relatıng to a verb.. That is gerçek can only be used as an adjective and gerçekten must precede the verb as an adverb. Gerçek olay (real incident) Gerçekten yaptı (He really dit it.

3-    Adjectives Lesson

While in English an adjective doesn’t change when the noun changes, which is the same in Turkish.. Bu benim küçük oğlumdur (This my younger son) Bu benim küçük kızımdır (This is my younger daughter.):Also, the adjectıve is always sıngular whether the noun it precedes is sıngular or plural.

4-    Numbers Lesson

In Turkish numbers from 1 to 20 are unique and therefore need to be memorized individually. Numbers from 21 and upwards are formed by using the following pattern: for example 21 can be formed by using 20 + 1 while connecting them. 22 = yirmi iki. 45 can be formed by using 40 + beş + 5 while connecting them: 45 = kırk beş

5-    Articles Lesson

They do not exist. Kitap ( book) is the nominative form of the noun. Putting the noun in the accusative i.e. the book  (kitabı) would correspond to what we call a definite article. The accusative is always the direct object. The nominative may be the  direct object or the subject.  :Kitap seviyorum (I like book(s). Kitabı seviyorum (I like the book) Kitap düştü (The book fell) In the fırst example kitap is a direct object and in the latter  it is the subject.

Indefinite Article:

6-    Verbs Lessons

-       Present Tense

In Turkish, verbs take the following endings to form the present tense:

Ben –yorum sen-yorsun o- yor, biz-yoruz, siz-yorsunuz, onlar-yorlar Example:

Ben konuşuyorum, Sen konuşuyorsun, O konuşuyor,Biz konuşuyoruz, Siz konuşuyorsunuz, Onlar konuşuyorlar I, You He,She,It We You They Speak/s)

These endings can help you a lot, because with them you can conjugate most of verbs into the present tense, you only need the stem of the verb, for example the stem of (konuşmak: to speak) is (konuşmak).Also bear in mind the third person singular and plural in Turkish are the same for all genders just as it is only in the third person plural in English

-       Past Tense

In Turkish as well as in English the simple past tense (imperfect) is used to describe past events. The endings for the past tense verbs are:

Ben-dim, Sen -din, O idi, Biz idik, Siz idiniz,Onlar idiler. Example :

Ben oynadım, Sen oynadın, O oynadı, Biz oynadık, Siz oynadınız, Onlar oynadılar. Oynamak (to play)

So just take any regular verb stem and add it to the endings above, for example our previous verb oynamak  (to play), its stem is “oyna”, plus the endings above becomes Ben oynadım (I platyed).

-       Future Tense

To form the future in Turkish it’s very easy, just use the whole infinitive verb plus the following endings;:Ben- eceğim/acağım, Sen- eceksin/acaksın, O- ecek/acak biz-eceğiz/acağız, Siz-eceksiniz/acaksınız, onlar- ecekler/acaklar. Example:

gideceğim,  gideceksin, gidecek, gideceğiz, gideceksiniz, gidecekler  gitmek (to leave, go)

This means that you don’t have to worry about the stem of a verb, just take it as an infinitive and add the above future endings to it. However, as you have notıced there are two options which are dependent on the vowels in the stem. Of the eight vowels:a,o,u,ı are considered as the wide vowels and e,i, ü (eu) and ö (French "e") are considered as the narrow vowels.The latter voweled stems take "ece. . “to form the future and the wide voweled ones "aca. . .”

7-    Asking a Question Lesson

In Turkish there is only one way to ask a question. The word "mi, mi, mü or mu according to the vowels contained in the conjugation of the verb are added at the end of the statement.. Gelecek mi? (Will he come) Geliyor mu? ) Is he coming?  Yaptı mı? (Did he do it?) Öküz mü?(Is that an ox) In other words there is no such thing as the inversion of the subject and pronoun to ask a question. Take away the word "mi, mı, mu or mü” and the question becomes a statement.

-Finally you can also make a question by adding a tag question to the end of a statement. O yapti değil mi? (He did it didn't he?)  Bu even in a tag question the word "mi,mı,mu,mü”  must be added.

8-    Negation Lesson

In Turkish, negation can be made simply by placing adding the suffix me/ma after the stem of the verb. Geliyor (He/she is coming) Gelmiyor (He/she is not coming.

Yapamiyor (He/she can’t do this) – to add “can’t” and `e/a is added to the normal conjugation. Yapmıyor ( He is not doing it Yapamıyor (He cannot do it)

In Turkısh double negatıves are not accepted. Ne bunu yaptı, ne de onu (He did neither this or that ( Previously double negatives were acceptable. )

9-    Feminine Lesson

There is no feminine lesson in Turkish  since adjectives do not change according to gender nor do possessive pronouns ( see explanation about possessive adjectives and pronouns below). gender. Benim kızım (my daughter) and benim oğlum ( my son) illustrates this. Likewise, the word öğrenci (student) is the same for both genders.

10- Pronouns Lesson

In English subject personal pronouns are (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they), and object personal  pronouns are (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them), In Turkish, subject  personal pronouns are:

Ben, sen, o biz,siz onlar

Ben öğreniyorum, sen öğreniyorsun, o öğreniyor, Biz öğreniyoruz, siz öğreniyorsunuz, onlar öğreniyorlar  learn ( öğrenmek) The second person plural  is used for politeness for the second person singular like the French ”vousvoyer” or the Spanish third person singular or third person plural (usted and ustedes)

Indirect Object Pronouns:

To better understand object pronouns it useful to remember that  all subject pronouns are in the nominative form. There are four more forms left: of which the following two suffice.

Accusative or direct object                            Dative or Indirect Object

Beni  Me              Bizi           Us                                   Bana   to me               Bize      to us

Seni   You            Sizi          You                                 Sana   to you               Size      to you

Onu    Him/her                 Onları       Them                             Ona    to him/her         Onlara   to them

Possessive Pronouns:

These pronouns are the "genitive" form of pronouns which were not included above. (This leave us one more form: Ablative which we will not discuss here) What is to be remembered is that in Turkish there is no such category of possessive adjectives. Therefore what we know in English as possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns are the same.

Benim my /Senin  your/ onun his(her)/ Bizim our/sizin your/ onların their

Therefore, Benim kıtabım (My book) Bu benim (This mine) both use "benim" for "my" and "mine." Thus, my/mine, your/yours/his/his/ her/hers/ its/ our/ours, your/yours, their/theirs is the same thing in Turkish.

We hope the lessons above helped you learn Turkish. To learn other topics please check our homepage here: Learn Turkish. Don't forget to bookmark this page.