Polish Grammar

If you're trying to learn the most essential topics about Polish you will find some useful resources including a course about adjectives, adverbs, articles, gender (feminine, masculine...), negation, nouns, numbers, phrases, plural, prepositions, pronouns, questions, verbs, vocabulary, excercises... to help you with your Polish grammar Enjoy our courses!


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Polish Lessons

Learning Polish can help you communicate with other people who speak Polish. The following courses will provide you with some help based on the lessons you choose. Here is a list of what we offer:

1-    Plural Lesson

While in English, the plural is formed by adding (s) to the singular, in Polish, to form the plural of nouns we usually add (i,y) to words ending in a vowel and (-e,y,i) to words ending in a consonant. Here are some examples:

Przyjaciel (a friend) becomes: Przyjaciele (friends)

Kobieta (a woman) becomes: kobiety (women)

This applies in general to numbers from 2-4. If there are 5 and more than 5 objects

 words ending in a vowel lose the vowel to form the plural:

Mama (a mother) becomes :  5 mam ( 5 mothers)

To words ending in a consonant we usually add the ending (ów):

księżyc (moon) becomes: 5 księżyców (5 moons).

The plural of adjectives:

All adjectives in Polish end with a vowel: feminine generally with the ending a (czerwona – red feminine) and masculine with y (czerwony -red masculine).

czerwona (red – feminine) becomes czerwone (red -feminine plural)for numbers 2-4, and czerwonych (red feminine plural) for numbers 5 and more. This applies to the Nominative of nouns described by these adjectives. Adjectives decline (with nouns):

N czerwona góra (red mountain)

G czerwonej góry

D czerwonej górze

A   czerwoną górę

I czerwoną górą

L czerwonej górze

V czerwona góro

N czerwone góry (red mountains)

G czerwonych gór

D czerwonym górom

A czerwone góy

I czerwonymi górami

L czerwonych górach

V czerwone góry

Czerwony (red masculine) becomes czerwone, czerwoni,  (red-masculine plural) depending on the noun (with what syllable it ends, how it declines) standing after the adjective.

Masculine adjectives decline in plural form (with nouns) like plural masculine adjectives:

N czerwone / czerwoni

G czerwonych

D czerwonym

A   czerwone

I czerwonymi

L czerwonych

V czerwone

The best way to learn the plural of Polish words is to learn patterns how words ending with a certain syllable behave.

Moreover, there are many exceptions which must be learnt by heart.

 

2-    Adverbs Lesson

While in English adverbs are usually formed by adding (-ly) to adjectives. In Polish many adverbs are formed from adjectives, usually by changing the ending into -o, - nie to adjectives. There are also some irregularities.

Examples:

Perfekcyjny (perfect) becomes perfekcyjnie (perfectly)

Szybki (quick) becomes szybko (quickly)

3-    Adjectives Lesson

While in English an adjective doesn’t change when the noun changes, in Polish an adjective should agree in gender and number with the noun. For example:

a)    Masculine to feminine example:

To jest mój mały syn (this is my little son) becomes: To jest moja mała córka. (this is my little daughter)

As you can see from the example above, the adjective comes before the noun and also takes the feminine form.

b)    Singular to plural example:

To jest mój biały kot (this is my white cat) becomes: To są moje białe koty (these are my white cats).

As you can see from the example above, the adjective comes before the noun and also takes the plural form.

4-    Numbers Lesson

In Polish numbers from 1 to 20 are unique and therefore need to be memorized individually. Numbers from 21 and upwards are formed by using the following pattern: for example 21 can be formed by using 20 + 1 while connecting them. 22 = dwadzieścia dwa.   45 = czterdzieści pięć

5-    Articles Lesson

Unlike English,  Polish has no articles:

6-    Verbs Lessons

 

-       Present Tense

In Polish, verbs take the following endings to form the present tense – there is only one Present Tense. We can skip the pronouns (except for the 3rd person singular and plural):

1.-m or -ę (umiem- I can, piszę- I write)
2.  -sz (umiesz- you can, piszesz- you write)
3.  -Ø (umie – he/she/it can, pisze – he/she/it writes)


· w liczbie mnogiej:
1. -my (umiemy – we can, piszemy- we write)
2.  -cie (umiecie- you can, piszecie-you write)
3.  -ą (umieją -they can, piszą- they write)

-       Past Tense

In Polish as well as in English the simple past tense (imperfect) is used to describe past events.

Singular:
- masculine:
1. widział-em (I saw)
2. widział-eś (you saw)
3. widział-Ø (he saw)


- feminine:
1. widziała-m (I saw)
2. widziała-ś (you saw)
3. widziała-Ø (she saw)


- neutral:
1. -
2. -
3. widział-o (it saw)


·Plural:
- masculine:
1. widzieli-śmy (we saw)
2. widzieli-ście (you saw)
3. widzieli-Ø (they saw)


- feminine and neutral:
1. widziały-śmy
2. widziały-ście
3. widziały-Ø

 

-       Future Tense

To form the future of imperfect verbs in Polish use the conjugated form of the verb “to be”  plus the conjugated form of a verb in the past or (much easier and equally correct) use conjugated form of the verb “to be” and the infinitive of a verb (ending with “ć”):

Singular

1. będę pisał (I'll write- masculine), będę pisała (I'll write-feminine) or będę pisać (I'll write -both masculine and feminine)
2. będziesz pisał, -a or będziesz pisać
3. będzie pisał, -a or będzie pisać
Plural:
1. będziemy pisali, -ły or będziemy pisać
2. będziecie pisali, -ły or będziecie pisać
3. będą pisali, -ły or będą pisać

The future of perfect verbs in Polish is complicated and highly irregular. We add different prefixes to different verbs and then conjugate them:

gotować (to cook)

Singular (masculine, feminine and neutral):

1.u-gotuj-ę (I'll cook)

2.u-gotuj-esz

3.u-gotuje

Plural (masculine, feminine and neutral):

1.u-gotuj-emy

2.u-gotuj-ecie

3.u-gotuj-ą

 

7-    Asking a Question Lesson

In Polish we form questions simply by adding question words to the sentences:

Lubisz jabłka. (You like apples.)

Czy lubisz jabłka? (Do you like apples?)

Oni mieszkają w Londynie. (They live in London)

Gdzie oni mieszkają? (Where do they live?)

8-    Negation Lesson

 

In Polish, negation is made by placing "Nie" before the main verb. The direct object from Nominative changes its form into Genitive.

Ja lubię jabłka. (I like apples)

Ja nie lubię jabłek. ( I don't like apples)

My mamy samochód. (We have a car)

My nie mamy samochodu. (We don't have a car)

Ona umie śpiewać. (She can sing)

Ona nie umie śpiewać. (She can't sing)

9-    Feminine Lesson

In Polish nouns are masculine (ending with a consonant), feminine (ending with a vowel) or neutral (ending with -o). You can't change their gender.

10- Pronouns Lesson

In English personal pronouns are (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they), and (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them),

In Polish, the personal pronouns are:

ja (I), ty (you), on (he), ona (she), ono...(it)

my (we), wy...(you),oni (they masc.), one (they fem.)

Indirect Object Pronouns:

Indirect object pronouns are words that replace the indirect object, which is usually a person.In Polish we decline them.

Ja-me

N ja

G mnie

D mi

A   mnie

I mną

L mnie

V ja

Ty-you (singular)

N ty

G ciebie or cię

D tobie

A   ciebie or cię

I tobą

L tobie

V ty

on -he

N on

G jego

D jemu

A   jego/go

I nim

L nim

V on

ona-she

N ona

G jej

D jej

A   ją

I nią

L niej

V ona

my-we

N my

G nas

D nam

A   nas

I nam

L nami

V my

wy-you (plural)

N wy

G was

D wam

A   was

I was

L wami

V wy

oni/one (they-masculine, feminine)

N oni/one

G ich

D im

A   ich/je

I nimi

L nich

V oni/one

Examples: Daj mi książkę (give me the book). Kocham Cię (I love you).

Possessive Pronouns:

They also decline in Polish:

mój -mine masculine singular

N mój

G mojego

D mojemu

A   mojego

I moim

L moim

V mój

moja-mine-feminine singular

N moja

G mojej

D mojej

A   moją

I moją

L mojej

V moja

moje-mine neutral singular

N moje

G mojego

D mojemu

A   mojego

I moim

L moim

V mój

moje-mine plural masculine, feminine and neutral

N moje

G moich

D moim

A   moje

I moimi

L moich

V moje

We hope the lessons above helped you learn Polish. To learn other topics please check our homepage here: Learn Polish. Don't forget to bookmark this page.


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