Chinese Grammar

If you're trying to learn the most essential topics about Chinese which is also called Mandarin, check our courses about adjectives, adverbs, articles, gender (feminine, masculine...), negation, nouns, numbers, phrases, plural, prepositions, pronouns, questions, verbs, vocabulary, excercises... to help you with your Chinese grammar Enjoy our courses!


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Chinese Lessons

Learning Chinese can help you communicate with other people who speak Chinese. The following courses will provide you with some help based on the lessons you choose. Here is a list of what we offer:

1-    Plural Lesson

While in English, the plural is formed by adding (s) to the singular. In Mandarin, to form the plural of nouns and adjectives we don’t add (-s) to words ending in a vowel and (-es) to words ending in a consonant. We use context to express plural meaning, but there are still some words could add to the end of words to express plural. Here are some examples:

 

一个朋友 (a friend) becomes: 朋友 (some friends); “means “a” and “朋友-” means “friend-s”.

Example: (Mandarin) 他是我的一个朋友。(EnglishHe is a friend of mine.

                 (Mandarin) 那些人是我的朋友们。(English) Those people are my friends.

 

一个(one person) becomes: 很多 or (many persons); in this case, if you used “很多” then you can’t use “” at the same time.

Example: 很多人留在了广场上。Many people stayed in Plaza.

 

这是我的红色汽车(this is my red car) becomes: 是我的红色汽车 (these are my red cars)

In this case, we don’t add anything to nouns and verb, we just add “” after “”.

 

一台电脑a set of computerbecomes: 几台电脑some sets of computer

几台” means “some sets of”, the same examples as 几滴水/ some drops of water

 

一个女孩a girlbecomes:八个女孩eight girls

If you need to count something, you just need to add the number before the noun and don’t have to add anything after noun. And at the same time, if you can’t count and can’t have a clearly number, you just need to add “” after “女孩” to become “女孩们”.

 

 

2-    Adverbs Lesson

While in English adverbs are usually formed by adding (-ly) to adjectives. In Mandarin many adverbs are very complicated; you have to identify it from context. Examples:

 

Example 1, use “

缓慢的动作 (slow action) becomes 缓慢地行走 (walk slowly)

But if you said “行动迟缓” (means move slowly), you can’s see “” in this phrase the word “迟缓” is still a adverb which describe the verb “行动”.

If a word in Mandarin phrase which can describe the verb, and answer the question “ in which point? about which point? in which aspect? “then it is an adv.

Example 2, use “

茫然 means vaguely

孑然 means alone

漠然 means coldly

欣然 means glad or gladly

霍然 means suddenly

Example 3, use “

体力上means physically

智力上 means mentally

法律上 means legally

In Mandarin, maybe one word, no change in its expression, can still be different in grammar use.

For example:

-green or azure sky: noun

-natural gift: adj.

-heavenly palace: adj.

-natural calamities: adj.

-everyday: adv.

啊!-Heavens’: exclamation

女子失其所-a woman loses what she depends: verb

Based on this characteristic, don’t try to point out what word in Mandarin is an adverb, please identify it through context.

 

3-    Adjectives Lesson

While in English an adjective doesn’t change when the noun changes, in Mandarin an adjective doesn’t change too. For example:

a)     

这是我的儿子(this is my little son) becomes: 这是我的女儿(this is my little daughter)

As you can see from the example above, you can just add “” before son and daughter.

b)    Singular to plural example:

这是我的白猫(this is my white cat) becomes: 这是我的几只白猫(these are my white cats).

As you can see from the example above, the adjective ” before cat doesn’t change in singular and plural situation.

 

4-    Numbers Lesson

We use Arabic numerals in Mandarin too. But we still have unique numeral system; please check the number 1-10 as below.

       as 1       In bank application and Taiwan region, it should be

       as 2      

       as 3      

       as 4      

       as 5      

       as 6      

       as 7      

       as 8      

       as 9      

       as 10     

       as 0       

Then, we can combine the word to form a bigger number.

十一     as 11

十二     as 12

二十     as 20

二十一   as 21

一百    as 100             

二百    as 200

一千     as 1000          

一千一百    as  1100

一万       as 10000       

 

 

 

 

5-    Articles Lesson

 

We don’t have articles in Mandarin.

 

6-    Verbs Lessons

We don’t change the verb’s expression in any tense; we add some supporting words in a phrase or sentence to help people to understand the happening time.

-       Present Tense

正在洗衣服。/ She is washing her clothes.

” is a verb means wash, we added “正在” means at this time to express “ is wash-ing”

每天洗衣服。/She washes her clothes every day.

每天means everyday, but you can see the verb “” haven’t been changed.

洗着衣服。/She is washing her clothes.

洗着” also means “is washing”.

 

 

-       Past Tense

     昨天买了一本书。/ I brought a book yesterday.

     昨天买” means “brought yesterday”

     买了一本书。/ I brought a book.

     “” is a good word to change the verb to be past tense, same example as 做了/done, 睡了/slept, 买了/brought.

      已经买了这本书。/ I have brought this book.

      “已经~” means have done

 

 

-       Future Tense

事情将要发生。/ Things will happen.

将要” means “will”, it’s a word to express future.

明天走了。/ He is going to leave tomorrow.

” means “is going to”

 

 

7-    Asking a Question Lesson

In Mandarin there is two ways of asking a question to get a yes or no answer, and this is the following:

1. Ending as “

已经做完?对,我做完了。/没,还没有。Have you finished it? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t.

已经洗好衣服?对,我洗好了。/还没洗好。Have you washed you clothes? Yes, I have. / No I haven’t.

你是玛丽?是,我是。/不,我不是。Are you Mary? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not.

那是丰田车?是的/ 不是。Is it a Toyota car? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t.

In above sentences, you can see it just added a “” after a normal declarative sentence to form a question.

2. Use the word “是否

世界是否正面临另一场经济危机?是啊/不,不是。Is the world facing another economic crisis? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t.

 

8-    Negation Lesson

 

In Mandarin, negation can be formed by putting a single “” before the verb

他能做到 (He is able to do it)-他不能做到(He isn’t able to do it

我喜欢这个 (I like it) 我不喜欢这个。(I don’t like it.

我是这个公司的职员。(I’m a employee of this company.-我不是这个公司的职员。(I’m not a employee of this company

 

9-    Feminine Lesson

We don’t have feminine in Mandarin.

 

 

10- Pronouns Lesson

In English personal pronouns are (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they), and (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them), In Mandarin, the personal pronouns are:

-------  I

------- you

------  he

------ she

------ it

我们------ we

你们------ you

他们------ they

 

We have to use a “” or “” or “使” to express object format, or just put the pronouns after verb

把我丢下 or 丢下我-------  leave me

把他杀了 or 杀了他-------  kill him

照看你----- look after you, can’t be 把你照看

把它吃了 or 吃了它---- eat it

把她放在地板上 or 放她在地板上----- put her on the floor

追赶他们-----  to run to catch up them, can’t be 把他们追赶

超过你们 or 将你们超越-----  to overtake you, can’t be 把你们超过

使我们灰心丧气----- to frustrate us, can’t be “” or “

 

 

Possessive Pronouns:

我的-------my or mine

你的-------your or yours

他的------- his

她的------- her

它的------- its

我们的------ ours

你们的------ yours

他们的------ theirs

We hope the lessons above helped you learn Chinese. To learn other topics please check our homepage here: Learn Chinese. Don't forget to bookmark this page.


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